2. 研究成果・資料
  3. 論文・出版


Democratizing the Adoption and Use of Advanced Digital Production Technologies


Democratizing the adoption and use of advanced digital production technologies


Michiko Iizuka: National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS),
Izumi Suzuki: National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS),
Chiharu Ito: National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)


MakerSpaces, FabLab, hackerspace, Industry 4.0, inclusive innovation, 3D printing technology, free innovation, user-led innovation




United Nations Industrial Development Organization


WP 13 2019




Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series


Industry 4.0 offers new opportunities for industrial development in emerging and developing countries, introducing new technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), 3D printing, among others. These technologies are expected to trigger societal transformations. While positive impacts on productivity and welfare are evident, some negative
side effects are expected as well, namely an unbalanced distribution of benefitsfrom technological development. In view of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs), the overarching goal being to “leave no one behind,” technological solutions should address specific local problems and be accessible to all.
This study addresses the critical issue of mitigating an unbalanced distribution of technological benefits by analysing MakerSpaces (MS) and its role in facilitating access to advanced digital technologies in developing countries. MS is a space created to share advanced digital equipment, such as 3D printing technology, among a community of users. It supports modern day “Do It Yourself (DIY)” activities that facilitate user-led innovations to solve individuals’ daily problems
by either creating or revising existing products to suit their needs. Furthermore, the use of digital technology enables the sharing of knowledge and innovation generated in MS, accelerating the diffusion of innovative solutions to many.
This study explores how MS can serve as a foundation for the adoption of capabilities necessary to use Industry 4.0 technologies in developing countries. After presenting MS and discussing its potential role in promoting new technologies from a conceptual perspective, the paper focusses on how MS exercises its role in developing countries based on existing cases. Finally, the paper reviews the challenges MS faces and concludes with a discussion on policy implications.